Indian Slavery [ACADEMIC FREESTYLE]

Written Out Of-History: The Untold Story-Of-Native-american-slavery

Written Out of History: The Untold Legacy of Native American Slavery

Caddo sold but did not keep slaves

Long quote from First Peoples: A Documentary History by Calloway [Published.  Used by Dr. Dontraneil D. Clayborne #DrDDClayborne

PRICELESS KNOWLEDGE IN THIS WORK!

Page 97-99

” Slavery existed in North America long before the English shipped the first African slaves to Jamestown in 1619. Before contact with Europeans, Indian warriors often took their enemies captive rather than killing them. They carried off war captives as slaves, humiliated and held them in subordination as markers of prowess in battle, gave them as gifts while making alliances, and sometimes adopted them in place of deceased relatives. But European colonialism introduced different concepts of slavery, brought new slave peoples to America from Africa, and drove Indian–Indian slave raiding to unprecedented levels. Like the trade in furs, trade in Indian slaves became a routine feature of the developing Atlantic economy. Indian hunters of human flesh, like Indian hunters of animal pelts, ranged farther afield and increased their catch to meet new demands. All European colonies in America used Indian slaves. The indigenous tradition of taking war captives and the European tradition of purchasing humans as property came together to shape a new slave market.67 ♦ Iroquois Warriors and Captive, c. 1666 This seventeenth-century French sketch shows Iroquois warriors returning from a raid with scalps and an Indian captive. In the “shatter zone” generated by Spanish invasion in the colonial South, competition for trade, escalating warfare, slave raiding, and epidemic disease were all interconnected.68 The English founded Charles Town (later Charleston), South Carolina, in 1670 and quickly began shipping in African slaves and shipping out Indian slaves to the Caribbean. Indians exchanged slaves for guns, which they then turned on Indian enemies to take more slaves. It was a perilous strategy, and one to which slave-raiding tribes themselves often fell victim. Westo Indians, originally a group of Eries who had fled Iroquois attacks in the north and moved to the James River, began slave raiding to supply English slave traders at Jamestown. By the 1660s they were raiding for slaves even farther south, in Georgia and Florida. Armed with English guns, the Westos preyed on bow-and-arrow tribes for slaves to sell in Charleston, until they themselves were destroyed in 1682 by Shawnee Indians in the pay of Carolina traders. The Westos in turn became victims of the Indian slave trade.69 By the end of the seventeenth century, French movement down the Mississippi and westward penetration of English traders from Charleston brought guns and slave raiding to the lower Mississippi valley. Newly armed bands of Indians raided villages on both sides of the Mississippi for slaves, whom they sold to English traders; the traders marched the slaves east, to be used in colonial households and on plantations or to be shipped to the Caribbean. The Chickasaws emerged as the dominant slave traders in the region. Pierre LeMoyne d’Iberville, the founder of France’s Louisiana colony, reported in 1699 that the Chickasaws “were going among all the other nations to make war on them and to carry off as many slaves as they could, whom they buy and use in extensive trading, to the distress of all these Indian nations.” Chickasaw raiding parties crossed the Mississippi and then herded their captives east to Charleston, causing reverberations throughout the lower Mississippi valley as other Indians fell victim, migrated, or sought refuge with other tribes.70 As with the fur trade, the Indian slave trade and the violence associated with it helped spread European diseases. Slave raiders who had come in contact with Europeans and their germs ranged far and wide through Indian country; refugees from their raids huddled together in communities, prime targets for lethal new epidemics. Disease hit populations already disrupted, displaced, weakened, and malnourished by the changes that followed in the wake of colonialism. The “Great Southeastern Smallpox Epidemic” of 1696–1700 broke out among English and African populations that were in frequent contact with Indians and spread via South Carolina’s Indian trading allies to the Mississippi valley and the Gulf Coast. Some historians estimate that the deadly combination of smallpox and rum reduced the Indian population living within two hundred miles of the English settlements to less than one-sixth of its original size within fifty years. The population collapse led to war in 1715 between South Carolina and its former Yamasee allies, who were indebted to colonial traders but could no longer supply the number of slaves South Carolina demanded and who now adopted more captives to bolster their own declining population. Before 1715 English colonists had captured, sold, and enslaved an estimated thirty to fifty thousand Indians, but now the flow of Indian captives into Charleston slowed to a trickle, and South Carolina turned to imports of African slaves to supply its labor needs.71 In some areas Africans came to outnumber Europeans, and the new people Indians encountered as a result of European colonialism were more likely to be black than white. Later in the eighteenth century, Indians, for whom the age and gender of captives had traditionally determined their suitability for seizure and treatment as slaves, began to target African Americans and to adopt racial attitudes toward slavery. By the turn of the century, many Indian people held African slaves, regarding them much as their white neighbors did.72 Indian slavery was widespread in Spanish colonies as well. As Cabeza de Vaca and his companions made their way south through Sonora in northwestern Mexico at the end of their eight-year odyssey, they met Spanish slave raiders pushing north, searching for Indians to work the silver mines of central Mexico (see page 77). In later years, as Spain’s mines gobbled up Indian labor, tribes like the Utes became slave traders. Mounted on horses they had acquired from Spaniards, they raided neighboring tribes to their north and west for slaves, whom they supplied to the Spanish, rather than fall victim themselves to Spanish slavery. The trade in Indian slaves reached far beyond the arena of Spanish control, involving Ute Indians from the Rockies, Plains Apaches, and many other peoples. Indian slaves in colonial New Mexico came to compose a separate class, known as genizaros, and were looked down upon by Pueblo Indians and Hispanic settlers alike.73 In New France, Indian traders sold or gave captives to Frenchmen, sometimes as gifts to cement and maintain their commercial and military alliances with France. French and Indian traders sold many slaves to the English in Carolina and transferred others to Quebec and Montreal, where they might serve in French households or get shipped to the Caribbean. Illinois raiders ranged out across the prairies, taking captives as slaves and trading them to the Ottawas and other tribes for guns and metal weapons. So many Indians were captured from the eastern Plains that French slaveholders called almost all Indian slaves “panis,” whether or not they were actually Pawnees. As Indian slaves passed from Indian to French hands, two forms of slavery overlapped and altered: the French adjusted to giving and receiving Indian slaves as a means of sustaining alliances and trade, and Indian slave raiders responded to the lure of French markets and money.74″

A sketch shows two Iroquois warriors and an Indian captive walking in a line.

In the “shatter zone” generated by Spanish invasion in the colonial South, competition for trade, escalating warfare, slave raiding, and epidemic disease were all interconnected.68 The English founded Charles Town (later Charleston), South Carolina, in 1670 and quickly began shipping in African slaves and shipping out Indian slaves to the Caribbean. Indians exchanged slaves for guns, which they then turned on Indian enemies to take more slaves. It was a perilous strategy, and one to which slave-raiding tribes themselves often fell victim. Westo Indians, originally a group of Eries who had fled Iroquois attacks in the north and moved to the James River, began slave raiding to supply English slave traders at Jamestown. By the 1660s they were raiding for slaves even farther south, in Georgia and Florida. Armed with English guns, the Westos preyed on bow-and-arrow tribes for slaves to sell in Charleston, until they themselves were destroyed in 1682 by Shawnee Indians in the pay of Carolina traders. The Westos in turn became victims of the Indian slave trade.69

By the end of the seventeenth century, French movement down the Mississippi and westward penetration of English traders from Charleston brought guns and slave raiding to the lower Mississippi valley. Newly armed bands of Indians raided villages on both sides of the Mississippi for slaves, whom they sold to English traders; the traders marched the slaves east, to be used in colonial households and on plantations or to be shipped to the Caribbean. The Chickasaws emerged as the dominant slave traders in the region. Pierre LeMoyne d’Iberville, the founder of France’s Louisiana colony, reported in 1699 that the Chickasaws “were going among all the other nations to make war on them and to carry off as many slaves as they could, whom they buy and use in extensive trading, to the distress of all these Indian nations.” Chickasaw raiding parties crossed the Mississippi and then herded their captives east to Charleston, causing reverberations throughout the lower Mississippi valley as other Indians fell victim, migrated, or sought refuge with other tribes.70

As with the fur trade, the Indian slave trade and the violence associated with it helped spread European diseases. Slave raiders who had come in contact with Europeans and their germs ranged far and wide through Indian country; refugees from their raids huddled together in communities, prime targets for lethal new epidemics. Disease hit populations already disrupted, displaced, weakened, and malnourished by the changes that followed in the wake of colonialism. The “Great Southeastern Smallpox Epidemic” of 1696–1700 broke out among English and African populations that were in frequent contact with Indians and spread via South Carolina’s Indian trading allies to the Mississippi valley and the Gulf Coast. Some historians estimate that the deadly combination of smallpox and rum reduced the Indian population living within two hundred miles of the English settlements to less than one-sixth of its original size within fifty years. The population collapse led to war in 1715 between South Carolina and its former Yamasee allies, who were indebted to colonial traders but could no longer supply the number of slaves South Carolina demanded and who now adopted more captives to bolster their own declining population. Before 1715 English colonists had captured, sold, and enslaved an estimated thirty to fifty thousand Indians, but now the flow of Indian captives into Charleston slowed to a trickle, and South Carolina turned to imports of African slaves to supply its labor needs.71 In some areas Africans came to outnumber Europeans, and the new people Indians encountered as a result of European colonialism were more likely to be black than white. Later in the eighteenth century, Indians, for whom the age and gender of captives had traditionally determined their suitability for seizure and treatment as slaves, began to target African Americans and to adopt racial attitudes toward slavery. By the turn of the century, many Indian people held African slaves, regarding them much as their white neighbors did.72

Indian slavery was widespread in Spanish colonies as well. As Cabeza de Vaca and his companions made their way south through Sonora in northwestern Mexico at the end of their eight-year odyssey, they met Spanish slave raiders pushing north, searching for Indians to work the silver mines of central Mexico (see page 77). In later years, as Spain’s mines gobbled up Indian labor, tribes like the Utes became slave traders. Mounted on horses they had acquired from Spaniards, they raided neighboring tribes to their north and west for slaves, whom they supplied to the Spanish, rather than fall victim themselves to Spanish slavery. The trade in Indian slaves reached far beyond the arena of Spanish control, involving Ute Indians from the Rockies, Plains Apaches, and many other peoples. Indian slaves in colonial New Mexico came to compose a separate class, known as genizaros, and were looked down upon by Pueblo Indians and Hispanic settlers alike.73

In New France, Indian traders sold or gave captives to Frenchmen, sometimes as gifts to cement and maintain their commercial and military alliances with France. French and Indian traders sold many slaves to the English in Carolina and transferred others to Quebec and Montreal, where they might serve in French households or get shipped to the Caribbean. Illinois raiders ranged out across the prairies, taking captives as slaves and trading them to the Ottawas and other tribes for guns and metal weapons. So many Indians were captured from the eastern Plains that French slaveholders called almost all Indian slaves “panis,” whether or not they were actually Pawnees. As Indian slaves passed from Indian to French hands, two forms of slavery overlapped and altered: the French adjusted to giving and receiving Indian slaves as a means of sustaining alliances and trade, and Indian slave raiders responded to the lure of French markets and money.74

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